نبرد گالیپولی یا نبرد چناق‌قلعه

 

 

نبرد گالیپولی

ترتیب وتهیه : دکتربصیر کامجو

 

نبرد گالیپولی یا نبرد چناق‌قلعه

نام جنگی است که در جنگ جهانی اول بین امپراتوری عثمانی و نیروهای ائتلافی (انگلستان، فرانسه و آنزاکها  یعنی “ارتش مشترک استرالیا و زلاند نو” (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps: ANZAC) که در جنگ جهانی اول به عنوان پشتیبان انگلستان شرکت کردند.) ) در تنگه داردانل در گرفت.

این نبرد در 25 آوریل سال 1915 میلادی آغازشد و سرانجام در دسامبر سال 1915  با شکست نیروهای ائتلافی به پایان رسید. و در پایان ازهردو جبههٔ متفقین و متحدین بیش ازنیم میلیون نفر کشته و زخمی برجای ماند.

در این نبرد کشتی‌های نیروی دریایی متفقین آسیب زیادی دیدند اما در پایان آنان فاتح جنگ جهانی اول شدند.

مصطفی کمال اتاتورک ، افسرترک در جنگ گالیپولی به شهرت رسید و پس از پایان جنگ و فروپاشی امپراتوری عثمانی بنیانگذار ترکیه نوین شد.

در برخی کشورها مانند استرلیا ، نیوزلند وترکیه هرساله یاد بود این نبرد گرامی داشته می شود

 

تاریخچه جنگ

در سال 1914 نیروهای متفقین (انگلیستان ، فرانسه ، نیوزلند وآسترلیا ) ، به فکر تصرف تنگه داردانل افتادند اما با اعلام بی‌طرفی دولت عثمانی، حمله‌ای به آن صورت نگرفت.

پس از ورود دولت عثمانی به جنگ، وینستون چرچیل که در آن زمان وزیر دریانوردی انگلستان بود، به نقش کلیدی این منطقه برای تسخیراستانبول اشاره کرد و در نهایت توانست نظر خود را به کابینه وارتش انگلستان بقبولاند. هدف این نبرد به زانو درآوردن عثمانی و امکان ارتباط نزدیک‌تر با روسیه بود.

نخستین بار، در نوزدهم فوریه 1915 ، ناوگان دریائی مشترک انگلستان و فرانسه با محاصره منطقه، به مدت یک ماه نیروهای عثمانی مستقر در دو سوی تنگه را گلوله ‌باران کردند. نبرد 18 مارس، آخرین برگ این حمله بود که نتیجه را در پایان به سود عثمانی‌ها رقم زد.

متفقین در این روز تمام نیروی خود را به کار بستند تا کنترل تنگه داردانل را به دست آورند اما با دفاع عثمانی‌ها، دست آخر هفت کشتی آنان در این روز غرق شد که منجر به عقب ‌نشینی این نیروها شد.

متفقین برای جبران این شکست و اعاده حیثیت، تدارک نبرد همه‌جانبه‌ای را با حضور نیروی دریایی و زمینی دیدند. در 25 آوریل، لشکر هفتاد هزار نفری متفقین، در « چناق قلعه » پیاده شدند و آنان را 109  ناوگان جنگی و صدها شناور دیگر از دریا حمایت کردند. این نبرد چندین ماه به طول کشید و با دفاع سرسختانه عثمانی‌ها روبرو شد. سرانجام، به دلیل تلفات سنگین، نیروهای متفق در ماه دسامبرآغاز به تخلیه منطقه کردند و کنترل منطقه در دست عثمانی باقی‌ماند.

 

توپخانه انگلستان در نبرد گالیپولی

 

برخی منابع  تعداد کشته شدگان این جنگ را نیم میلیون نفر نوشته‌اند اما بر اساس شمار کشته شدگان و مجروحان روی هم نیم میلیون نفر بوده‌است که تقریباً دو طرف به اندازه برابر کشته و زخمی داده‌اند.

تعداد کشته‌های عثمانی و متفقین به ترتیب 86  و 44 هزار نفر بوده‌است. زخمی شدگان نیز به ترتیب 97  و 164  هزار نفر بوده‌اند که جمع تلفات (کشته شدگان و زخمی‌ها) به بیش از نیم میلیون نفر می‌رسد.

مصطفی کمال رهبر ترکها خود در نبرد مستقیماً فرماندهی ترک‌ها را بر عهده داشته و در تهییج و تحریک نیروهای عثمانی مؤثر بوده ‌است. چرچیل نیزازسوی دیگرنقش عمده‌ای را در انگلستان در به راه‌اندازی این جنگ داشته‌است.

این نبرد در استرالیا و نیوزلند با نام نبرد آنزاک نیز شناخته می‌شود و هر ساله مراسم یادبودی درروز آنزاک برای آن برگزار می‌شود.

آتاتورک در یکی از سخنرانی‌ها به نیروهای زیر فرمانش گفته بود : ” من به شما دستورنمی‌دهم که بروید و بجنگید، دستورمی‌دهم بروید و بمیرید ” .

 

منابع

ـــ ویکی پدیای انگلیسی

ـــ وب گاهی از ترکیه در باره گالیپولی

ـــ روز شمار نبرد

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The European Situation, Before the Campaign
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Goeben
In the beginning of the 20th century, Europe was overflowing from its frontiers. Economical rivalry, imperialism and nationalist movements were dividing the continent into two blocs. The conflict was rising between Germany-France and Russia-Austria. The tension in Europe had reached its highest point on 28 June 1914 with assassination of Archduke Ferdinandheir of the Austro-Hungarian throne by a Serbian nationalist.

On 28 July 1914, Austria had declared mobilisation then the Great War began. In Europe, two blocs had appeared, Central Powers (Germany, Austro-Hungary and Italy) and Triple Alliance (Britain, France and Russia). With the outbreak of the war, Italy had declared her neutrality but one year later she joined to the Triple Alliance.

On the other hand, Ottoman Empire was losing her large territories in which many nations and beliefs had lived for over 600 years. Both internal and external conflicts and wars were weakening her strength. Finally, Ottoman Empire with series of military defeats in Tripoli and in the Balkans lost nearly all her territories in Europe except the Trace.

Moreover, she lost her power and international prestige. From now on, the death of the empire was certain and European powers were planing to share the heritage. As seen, the Twentieth Century had compelled the Turks to grant zones of influence to European powers: Britain (Egypt-Palestine), France (Syria and the Lebanon), Austria-Hungary (Bosnia-Herzegovina), Italy (Libya). Russia was interested in the Mediterranean and Italy wanted parts of the eastern Mediterranean.

Following the blow of the war, under threat from within and outside her borders, Turkey sought a protective agreement from one of the two European power blocs: the Triple Alliance or the Central Powers. At first, she intended to join the Triple Alliance but Russia’s protests led her to make a defensive alliance with Germany. On 2 August 1914, Turkey and Germany had signed a secret agreement.

Thereupon, the Turkish government had declared that it would remain neutral. However, to secure its borders, it introduced mobilisation. On 10 August 1914, Turkey allowed two German cruisers Goeben and Breslau, which were running from the Allied Navy, to enter the straits. Afterwards, she closed the straits to the foreign ships.

The Allies became increasingly alarmed with the arrival of those German ships. The Turkish government had stated that, they bought these battleships from Germany in place of two dreadnought battleships, which had been built in Britain for the Turkish Navy, and were requisitioned by Britain although Turkey had purchased them. Thus, the German ships became a part of the Turkish Navy with Turkish names, Yavuz and Midilli.

On 27 September 1914, Yavuz under the command of German Admiral Souchon bombarded Sivastopol and Novoroski, Russian shore establishments on the Black Sea. Thereupon, Russia passed the Caucasus border and declared war. This was the final act; the Ottoman Government was now at war.

Turkey’s geographical position was crucial, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles were significant, as they were the only passages between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. Moreover, they were Russia’s main contact with her allies, Britain and France.

In the course of history, countless wars had been fought for the straits in the name of their strategic positions, economic and cultural heritages. Even today, they still preserve their importance.

The Triple Alliance’s attempt to pass the straits was certainly a direct result of their strategic positions. The allies’ main target was to assist Russia. Likewise, it was believed that the capture of the straits would lead the British fleet to Istanbul and this might cause the downfall of the Turkish government. Further, it was hoped that the neutral European countries would join the Alliance against the Central Powers.

If the straits would be openned, this victory would intimidate all the Muslim colonies. All the events, disturbing the British would disappear.

Under these circumstances, Britain had decided to declare a war on 28 January 1915 and France offered a naval squadron to serve under British command in this great enterprise against Istanbul.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Allied Attempt to force a passage of the Narrows, 18 March 1915
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HMS Ocean, sunk in the Naval Attack of 18 March
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The French Battleship, Bouvet
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HMS Inflexible bombarding Turkish positions
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HMS Swiftsure bombarding Helles
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HMS Queen Elizabeth
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HMS Irresistible, sunk in the Naval Attack of 18 March
The British acting with the concept “the one rules the seas, rules the world”, believed that it was possible to open the Dardanelles “by ships only”. Before The Naval Attack was instituted, First Lord of the Admiralty Churchill asked the officer commanding the Aegean, Vice-Admiral Sackville Carden.

Carden stated that he believed the Dardanelles could be forced, given sufficient warships and minesweepers, in a three stage plan; first a neutralisation of the Turkish forts guarding the entrance, then a clearing of the Turkish minefields, and finally a drive into the Sea of Marmara. This plan persuaded the War Council despite Lord Fisher’s doubts. The British Navy was proud of its ammunitions, technology, and surely, its victorious history, full of uncountable successes. It was impossible for the frayed, collapsing Ottoman Empire to withstand this invincible armada supported by French warships.

Allied Armada’s naval attack began on 19 February 1915. Until 13 March 1915, they continuously bombarded the Turkish forts and opened a way for the minesweepers. However, they had confronted with the Turks’ tough resistance. The Turkish gunners did not bother to reply the Allies’ bombardment. This showed that, to open the Dardanelles was not that easy and the Allies could have cleaned only the first five miles of the strait.

Until 18 March the Allied Armada destroyed Seddulbahir and Ertugrul forts located on the European shore and Kumkale and Orhaniye forts located on the Asiatic shore. It seemed that the entrance was now clear but the future was still uncertain. Nobody guessed what was going to happen on 18 March 1915.

On 17 March 1915, Admiral de Robeck was in charge to proceed the plan in place of Admiral Carden. In respect of Carden’s plan, the Allied Fleet appeared in the entrance in the morning of 18 March. De Robeckhimself commanded the Fleet’s most powerful squadron.

In bright sunshine and without the possibility of surprise, de Robeck in HMS Queen Elizabeth led the first wave up the channel at 10:30. Queen Elizabeth’s target was Mecidiye fort, HMS Lord Nelson was going to bomb the Namazgah fort and HMS Inflexible’s object was Hamidiye fort. This was called as “A Line” and it was begun to be proceeding at 11:30. De Robeck’s most powerful ships commenced to bombard the central forts.

Meanwhile, Allied Fleet had entered the fire line coming from Kumkale. Turkish hotwizers began to fire, but their guns could not cover the distance and the gunners failed to reach the ships. At midday, Allied Fleet had destroyed the Cimenlik and Hamidiye forts. De Robeck signalled his second wave to go in closer, Guepratte’s French squadron, Bouvet, Charlemagne, Gaulois and Suffren with HMS Triumph and Prince George.

This step of the plan was called as “B Line”. Guepratte led his squadron through the British line and subjected the shore defences. Under Turkish gunners’ heavy fire, the squadron had reached the B Line. After a mutual bombardment, the Allies had succeeded to stop the middle forts but the central forts continued to fire. Two British ships, HMS Triumph and HMS Prince George had taken their positions in A Line and they targeted Mesudiye and Yildiz forts.

Turkish forts on the European shore were under a fierce fire. Most of the bombshells had hit them and destroyed the telephone lines. Moreover, Mecidiye fort stopped with the death of its gunners.

If the allies could have succeeded the second step of the plan, second squadron commanded by Colonel Hayes Sadler would have moved and replaced the third squadron. De Robeck signalled the French to retire for his third wave of advance, Ocean, Irresistible, Albion, Vengeance, Swiftsun and Majestic.

As the French ships led by Suffren had their return, wheeled away to make room for the second squadron, something unexpected had happened, around 14:00. French ship Bouvet following immediately Suffren hit a mine and within two minutes had disappeared entirely, with the loss of almost all her crew. As the steamboats immediately arrived to rescue the crew, they only could save 20 people’s lives. At 12:30, Gaulois hit a mine but she could have left the strait with a serious stroke. At 15:30, Inflexible hit a mine not far from the grave of Bouvet.

Despite severe damage, she could have arrived to the island of Imros. Shortly afterwards, Irresistible hit a mine; out of control she was near the Asiatic shore to attract the attention of Turkish gunners and her crew was taken off. On 8 March, Turkish minelayer Nusret had surreptitiously laid a line of mines parallel to the Asiatic shore, and now these mines were unexpectedly destroying the Allied Armada. As De Robeck had realised that the Turks had laid mines to the channel, he abandoned the attack. At 18:05, while the second squadron was withdrawing, HMS Ocean hit a mine and she exploded. Despite a heavy fire, her crew was evacuated.

The events in 18 March confused the Allies. Churchill‘s opponents like Lord Fisher had turned out to be right, it was impossible to open the strait “by ships only”. Nevertheless, de Robeck and Churchill were still insisting that a renewed push would succeed. They began to renovate the plans for another naval expedition to Istanbul.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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25 April 1915
Anzac Cove
Helles
Kumkale
6-10 August Suvla
Evacuation
 


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Mediterranean Expeditionary Force Is Making Preparations:

On 1 March, Greece had offered three divisions for an expedition to Istanbul after a successful ally landing on Gallipoli Peninsula. Britain and France were eager to accept this offer but Russian Tsar impeded this project. He stated that, he would never accept any Greek participation in Istanbul.

Meanwhile, in London the War Council was drafting another naval attack. Muddle and disagreements were going on. The main question was that “whether an army should support the navy, or not”. Lord Fisher was the most adamant supporter of a combined attack. However, Lord Kitchener was the last decision-maker of the resumption. He was insisting on that, he did not have any sufficient force to send to Turkey.

Nevertheless, the superb 29th Division was still in Britain without an assignment. At last, in March he was convinced to release 29th Division and declared that he will send it to the Aegean Sea to assist the navy. However, the British Generals in France had impetuously protested this decision and Kitchener assigned the Anzac Division in Egypt to the Dardanelles. He declared that, the Anzac Division would be dispatched on 18 February.

On 5 March, General William Birdwood making a military exploration in the Aegean had sent a report to Kitchener notifying his doubts about a sole naval attack. In the same report, he stated that, the support of a powerful army was necessary for success. This report had swept all Kitchener’s doubts away. He proclaimed that on 10 March, 29th Division would be set for the Aegean and a French division’s arrival would be arranged. Thus, he assigned 70.000 soldiers including the Anzac forces for the second expedition.

Despite Birdwood’s report, there were still advocates of a sole naval attack. In this confusion, nobody thought to retire the navy until the army had completed the preparations for a combined attack.

In this muddle and confusion the commander of the Expeditionary Forces had been designated. This commander was Sir Ian Hamilton a good friend of Lord Kitchener from the wars of the Southern Africa.

The army’s task was wait until the navy finished its mission. If the navy would fail, the army would land on the Peninsula. Hamilton by leaving a weak army to the Peninsula would leave for Istanbul and would unify with the Russian Division landed on the Bosphorus.

On 17 March, Hamilton was looking to the Dardanelles from the deck of Phaeton. They were just on time. The next day on 18 March, he was watching his armada’s attack to the Dardanelles. Thus, all the actors of this bloody play were in the arena now. After the attack, the Turks recovered their confidences because of the victories of their fortifications. Although, the British and French were highly disappointed their armada was still strong and they had a new commander watching the events. However, he did not have a proper plan or an army.

After 18 March, the bad weather was continuing in Canakkale. Hamilton and his staff had gone to Egypt. From now on, silent was reigning; there were no ship passing the strait, no cannon bursting.

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Embarkment of the reconnaissance planes in Alexandria Harbour (1915).
Seven years after the first flight of the aeroplane, in 1910, the idea of military aeroplanes came into being. In the following years, planes became the most effectual instrument of an assault.

Ottoman Minister of War, Mahmut Shevket Pasha closely followed the development of aeroplanes and in 1911, he formed the department of military aviation. This department served as the basis of the modern Turkish Air Force.

To provide this flying weapon, Mahmut Pasha donated an important part of his salary and started a nation-wide campaign. On this purpose, Sultan Reshad, the Navigation Society, officers, and many rich people followed the Pasha and the sufficient amount was collected in a short time. As Mahmut Pasha has found the money he bought two aeroplanes from France.

Next, a school of aviation was established, in Istanbul. In addition, another school for seaplanes was established and for this new schools enthusiastic and talented officers were chosen.

When the Dardanelles Assault has begun, Turkish aviation was newly born and was just developing. Nevertheless, the Dardanelles is very important for the development of Turkish aviation. It was the first experience of the air strategies and tactics.

On 2 August 1914, Turkey introduced mobilisation and two seaplanes were sent to Izmir and one was sent to Canakkale. On 25 August 1914, the Nievport type seaplane used by Captain Savmi, first lieutenant Fazil and first lieutenant Cemal- from its disposition in Canakkale Nara Square, observed the activities of British and French ships. Until 18 March 1915, many successful reconnaissanceshave been made.

The report of Turkish pilots on 18 March 1915 is as follows:

“In front of island of Imbros 40 enemy ships were seen. 19 of them are heavy, 3 of them are light cruisers. The others are steamers and aircraft carriers. Submarines were seen as well, but the number is uncertain. 6 English dreadnoughts were noticed, they are advancing in assault order and the French ships are weighing anchors.”

After a while, when the Allied Navy has entered the strait, the British planes took of from Ark Royal, assisted the artillery. In the afternoon of 18 March, Turkish reconnaissances were ordered to notify the Allies’ positions on the island of Limnos. In one hour, the pilots have reached their target and reported that, on Mondros Cove there were 13 battleships, 14 carriages and 29 coal ships. Moreover, they have informed that, French Gaulois was very seriously damaged in the entrance of the strait.

During the Dardanelles campaign, mutual reconnaissance continued. One of Turkish pilots’ succeesses was on 18 March. That day, to destroy 18 ally planes positioned on the island of Imros, an assault had planned. However, allied aeroplanes take off and met with the Turkish planes on the air and after a short struggle without a serious causality, they returned to the airport. Turkish assault failed, but it was the first real air enterprise.

In the same day, the British made a counter-attack with six planes, but as the Turkish planes were hidden the bombs did not destroy any of them.

On 25 June, to the British positions on Anzac Cove, the Turkish planes throw 3000 announcements in English. This was a good example of the importance of air force in a psychological war.

First Lieutenant Ali Riza and Lieutenant Orhan were ordered to destroy a grounded ally cruiser in the entrance of the strait, on 30 November 1915. At the moment of the attack, a French plane came closer but, Ali Riza managed to shot the plane and it was fallen. First Lieutenant Ali Riza was the first Turkish pilot who succeeded to shot a plane by a machine gun and destroy it.

As seen, as in all the steps of the Dardanelles Campaign, the Turks repulsed the air assaults very successfully. Even in the English war history books, this reality is revealed. One of them says, “We admired our enemy’s extraordinary defence and final success”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Dardanelles failure has put an end to the British Empire’s apogee. From then on Britain’s influence in her dominions had gradually declined. Despondent Africa and India have revolted. A period of awakening had begun in the dominions with the sense of national identity. In 20-30 years time, the British Empire has came to an end. The British has sailed for the world sovereignty but the Dardanelles campaign has misled their route.

After the Dardanelles Campaign, the course of history had been changed not only for Britain but also for Russia. Russia has entered a period of progression and this progression reached its highest point in the Second World War.

On the other hand, the Ottoman Government has closed the straits until the end of First World War and banned any passage through. Doubtless, this closure had very negative effects on international trading and especially on the countries neighbouring the Black Sea.

Military Assessment
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  • According to the Turkish sources, the Allies’ total casualties are 187.000 soldiers. The Turkish causality is 57.084 soldiers in the land attacks and 179.000 soldiers in The Naval Attack and totally 211.000 soldiers.
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  • The Allied Navy had failed to open the straits and to capture Istanbul; thus, the fear of losing Istanbul disappeared.
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  • The worthiest tribute of this war to the Turkish nation is the birth of Mustafa Kemal’s military genius.
    d- Both 18 March Naval and Gallipoli landing victories restored the Turkish Army’s prestige.
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  • When the allies has decided to make an expedition to the Dardanelles, one of their objectives was to leave the Ottoman Empire off the war for an easier defeat of Germany. However, the Turkish victory in Gallipoli caused the Great War to continue two more years, until Germany’s withdrawal.
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  • The closure of the straits cut Russia’s connection off with her allies and deprived her from their aids. Because, more than half million allied soldiers were engaged in Gallipoli, Germany led her eastern operations easily.
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  • Turkish soldiers showed great courage in defending the Dardanelles and they became an example for the Turkish Independence War.
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  • In these wars, many educated, intellectual Turkish people had died. Their loss had negatively effected Turkey in coming years.

 

 

 

 

 

All the King’s Men ( Norfolk Regiment )
Birth of a Hero
First Turkish Aeroplane
Muavenet and Goliath
Nusret Minelayer
Requisitioned Dreadnoughts
Why the Turks Never Used Chemical Warfare
Women wariors of the Dardanelles
 

          ALL THE KING’S MEN AND 1/5 NORFOLK REGIMENT
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A film was made in Britain, in 1999. The name of the film is “All the King’s Men.” The scenery is based on an alleged story about a British regiment, which attacked the Turks on 12 August 1915, in Suvla region of the Gallipoli Peninsula. The plot runs as follow:

During the Gallipoli campaign, Sandringham Company which served as part of the 54th Division, 163rd Brigade 1/5 Norfolk Regiment attacks the Turks on 12 August 1915, in the Suvla Region of the Gallipoli Peninsula. In the combat, the Turks defeat them and take them captives. The tension of the story rises when the Turks shot all the captives from their heads and burn all the wounded soldiers in a farmhouse to “end their pains.” This story is not known in Turkey, but in Britain, it has been emphasised especially in the recent years.

The British authorities claim that Turkey could not have given a sufficient reply when Britain had asked the consequence of 1/5 Norfolk Battalion, in the end of the First World War. They think that the reason was the event revealed above. However, the reality was totally different. In the battle fought in Suvla region, on 12 August 1915, the British 163rd Brigade gave serious casualties because of the Turkish artillery and the snipers.

The commander of 54th Division was General Inglefield, the commander of 1/5 Norfolk Regiment was Lieutenant Colonel Sir Horace Beauchamp and the commander of Sandringham Company was Captain Beck. The Turkish force, which fought against the British, was 36th Division under command of Major Munib Bey. In War Chronicle, Munib Bey states that on the concerned day, the British attack had been backfired and 35 British soldiers were taken captives. The captives gave evidence, which remain in the records.

One of them was Private A. G. Brown (1/5 Norfolk Regt. 54 Div. 163 Brigade East Anglian Division) and his evidence, which he gave to the Turkish commanders as follow:

“On 10 August 1915, I went ashore surroundings of the Salt Lake. In the attack made to a hill, which I do not know its name, I was taken captive, on 12 August. Our commander was Inglefield. I only stayed in Suvla for two days and I do not know anything.” These are the words of a captive and there are other evidences similar to this one. However, the British insist that the Turks killed all the captives but they did not prove their alleged plot.

It is clear that the Turkish forces stopped the Allies’ on 12 August 1915. In that defence, the Turkish snipers were involved and the British Militaries agree that it is normal to die by the shots of the snipers in a close combat. It was inevitable for the Turks to defend their country against the Ally occupation.

Ataturk’s words explain the situation of the Turks in the Gallipoli battles; “Unless it is indispensable, war is a slaughter.” The Turkish Army defended the peninsula against the Allies and the result is heartrending.

The servants of King George V formed Sandringham Company of the Norfolk Regiment and most probably, this is the reason of such a story. In addition, Aspinal Oglander states that the company was not ready for such an important mission but General Ingfield assigned them to capture a region, which was strongly defended by the Turks. Unfortunately, those untrained soldiers came cross with Turkish snipers. May be this fictitious story was created to cover this fatal mistake.

There were always rumours about the torments, which the Turks made to their captives. It is known that the Ally commanders to make their soldiers fight more vividly, said, “if the Turks catch you, they will eat you.” The Turks never ill-treated their captives. Especially during the Gallipoli Battles, both armies had fought fairly. If the archives researched it is possible to find the records about the medical services offered to the sick or wounded captives. For example, even to cure the teeth problems of the captives, dentists were designated. Did the British, French, or the Russians do same treatment to their captives? The Turkish captives of the Allies tell the opposite. Further researches on this subject would reveal the facts and reply all the accusations.

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Updated: مارس 25, 2019 — 12:14 ق.ظ